Rare and Uncommon New Hampshire Mineral Species             Return to front page.           Click on image for larger view
      My NH species list is principally based on published lists from the past several decades (Morrill, Cares, Meyers & Stewart). About five percent of this baseline list is from more recent finds and analytic efforts. However since the launch of this web site, I have been accumulating photos and analysis results for a few dozen additional NH species. Several active field collecting friends, notabily Bob Wilken and Peter Cristofono, have made substantial contributions to this effort. A central purpose of these pages is to aid collectors in the identification of similar New Hampshire examples.
      These web pages present the current state of our study, (an alphabetical listing). The species included here are limited to those which 1) specimens exist in one of our collections or specimens we have seen & photoed a convincing specimen, 2) we have one or more photos, and 3) for which in most cases we have an analytic result to support the indicated identification. Many of these species are rare or uncommon in New Hampshire. Frequently only one or two examples are known to exist. Some confirmations are from decades old collections.
      I acknowledge the New Hampshire species list on the mindat.org (NH-list) web site has over forty additional entries that are not on my NH species list or on this "rare - uncommon" list. A review of these will be the topic of a future study.

      Some of these rare-uncommon species have been identified with greater confidence than others. To convey this level of confidence a five point scale is included with each species.
            5 We believe the Analysis and Physical properties (A & P) of this specimen sufficiently support the identification beyond reasonable doubt.
            4 The A & P strongly suggest the indicated species.
            3 The A & P are consistent with the indicated identification.
            2 The A & P evidence indicate the ID is a good candidate. However other candidate species should be considered. A question may exist about the provenance of the specimen.
            1 The indicated ID is a "best guess". Additional testing will be helpful in improving confidence.
When multiple mineral photos are available from a given locality, the confidence, chemistry, and analyses are provided with the first photo.
Much of the EDS analyses included here has been supported by the Micromounters of New England.
I am greatful for the generous specimen contributions to these pages from Bob Janules, Gordon Jackson, Dana Morong, and Dana Jewell.

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Highslide JS
ALLUAUDITE   Palermo Mine, N. Groton, NH
3 mm field of view. Dark-green partially embedded crystals

Species:           ALLUAUDITE
Confidence:     3
Chemistry:      (Na,Ca)(Mn,Mg,Fe)(Fe,Mn)2(PO4)3
Locality:          Palermo Mine, N. Groton, NH
Specimen Size: 3 mm field of view. Dark-green partially embedded crystals
Owner: Tom Mortimer
Field Collected: Clayton Ford. Gift from Gordon Jackson
Catalog No.: u2021
Analysis: A polished grain, standardless, quantitative EDS analysis (BC177) indicated a best fit of alluaudite.
The chemistry indicated by this analysis is: (Na)(Mn0.74,Mg0.35,Fe1.07)(PO4)2.25 plus excess O of 16, normalized for one Na. Note, excess oxygen has been frequently encountered with this EDS instrument.
Notes: Although alluaudite is not listed in Whitmore and Lawrence's The Pegmatite Mines Known as Palermo, there is a photo of alluaudite on the webmineral species page for a Palermo alluaudite: webmineral link.
Mindat's Palermo species list includes 'Alluaudite-Ferroalluaudite Series' but no photos. The mindat.org reference cited is the Min Rec 1973 phosphate article by P. Moore. Checking this article, P. Moore does not include alluaudite in the discussion of its localities, but does list Palermo in phosphate species locality tabulation under alluaudite. The MR's article description of alluaudite as "deep opaque dull green color" is very different from the webmineral photo. The Encyclopedia of Minerals includes Palermo in the alluaudite species list. It describes the "COLOR-LUSTER" of the alluaudite species as "dull greenish black, dirty yellow, brownish yellow to brownish black." Quite a range ... that would seem to include the webmineral specimen.
Dana's System of Mineralogy 7th edition, pg. 674, describes alluaudite as "Color dirty yellow to brownish yellow, also dull greenish black..."
Highslide JS
BETAFITE Group purchased as IXIOLITE    Allen Mine, Alstead, NH
3 cm specimen


Ixiolite label
Species:           BETAFITE Group purchased as IXIOLITE
Confidence:     3
Chemistry:       Moderate variation in the chemistry of this group - see mindat.org
Locality:          Allen Mine, Alstead, NH
Specimen Size: 3 cm specimen
Owner: Tom Mortimer
Field Collected: Joe Lech. A purchased specimen
Catalog No.: 1660
Analysis: An EDS analysis performed on this specimen indicated a much better match for betafite than for ixiolite.
Notes: Specimen purchased from Mineralogical Research, San Jose, CA. The label that accompanied specimen is reproduced below the specimen photo.
Communication from Mineralogical Research stated that this specimen came from the collection of Joseph F. Lech, Jr.
Neither betafite, ashanite, nor ixiolite appears on historical NH species lists. Ashanite is very similar to Ixiolite except in Ashanite the Niobium content exceeds the Tantalum content. The EDS analyist stated "The best fit is BETAFITE. Under the beam very heavy elements like Uranium throw off high energy electrons which interact with the metals of the SEM chamber. The Al, Si and Cu peaks are probably from the metals inside the SEM chamber. Definitely not Ixiolite."
Follow-up research on the provenance of this specimen has determined it was field collected by Joe Lech, subsequently sold to Tony Albini, who then sold it to Mineralogical Research. The Ashanite/Ixiolite identification was not made by Joe Lech, (personel communication).
Highslide JS
BEUSITE    Palermo Mine, N. Groton, NH
10 mm field of view. Nut brown scales of beusite? on black siderite.
Species:           BEUSITE
Confidence:     3
Chemistry:      (Mn2+,Fe2+,Ca,Mg)3+(PO4)2
Locality:          Palermo Mine, N. Groton, NH
Specimen Size: 10 mm field of view. Nut brown scales of beusite? on black siderite.
Owner: Tom Mortimer
Field Collected: Walter Lane
Catalog No.: u1463
Notes: A gift from Gene Bearss. Beusite has not previously been reported from the Palermo Mine, or the state of New Hampshire. This specimen was labeled by Gene as lepidocrocite, which is a reasonable visual idenitifcation. Lepidocrocite is a simple iron oxide, dimorphous with goethite. However, a qualitative EDS analysis suggested beusite was the best fit, (no Fe, but lots of Ca, P, and Mn).
Robertsite would seem to be another possibility, Ca3Mn3+4(PO4)3O2·3H2O
It is impossible to photograph these tiny, lustrous, randomly-oriented, scales without getting at least a few bright reflections.
Highslide JS
CANNIZZARITE      Aggregate Industries Quarry, Raymond, NH
3.5 mm field of view
Species:           CANNIZZARITE 
Confidence:     4
Chemistry:      Pb46Bi54S127 (Fleischer 2008)
Locality:          Aggregate Industries Quarry, Raymond, NH
Specimen Size: 3.5 mm field of view
Field Collected (owner): Tom Mortimer
Catalog No.:
Analysis: A January, 2014 EDS analysis of these metalic needles indicated this is a lead-bismuth mineral. The chemistry of the metalic needles and the ribbons appears to be identical.
Another mineralogist reviewing the spectra of our recently analyzed "Pb-Bi alloy" mineral has suggested that the Pb-Bi peaks in the 2.3 to 2.4 KeV region may be masking sulfur lines in this region, this suggesting a Pb-Bi sulfide mineral.
A February, 2014 EDS analysis of these metalic ribbons (from a Tom Mortimer specimen) indicated this is a lead-bismuth mineral.
Tony Mariano performed two EDS analyses on these metalic ribbons: Cannizzarite1_EDS , Cannizzarite2_EDS.
Peter reported: "The metallic needles clearly are a Pb, Bi, S mineral. Tony says that there is noticeably more bismuth than lead. Of the possible Pb-Bi-S minerals only two: cannizzarite (monoclinic) and galenobismutite (orthorhombic) have more Bi than Pb. Tony likes cannizzarite, but we would need XRD or some other structural analysis to be sure. (There is a small amount of Cu in one analysis, which makes me also wonder about cosalite, but the Pb-Bi ratio is wrong.)"
Notes: Peter Cristofono suggested candidate species of (links to mindat photos):
Galenobismutite
Cosalite
Cannizzarite
Acknowledging the likelihood of Pb and Bi masking the sulfur lines, Kerry Day responded: "Since both metallic Bismuth and Bismuth alloys have a brittle fracture like sulfides there is no good way to tell if Sulfur is present. The Pb and Bi are subequal, therefore, of the possibilities you mentioned only Cannizzarite and Cosalite fit. I am not an expert on Pb-Bi sulfides but they do make more sense than naturally occurring Pb-Bi alloys."
Highslide JS
CANNIZZARITE   Aggregate Industries Quarry, Raymond, NH
metalic needle is almost 1 cm long
Species:           CANNIZZARITE  
Locality:          Aggregate Industries Quarry, Raymond, NH
Specimen Size: metalic needle is almost 1 cm long
Field Collected (owner): Tom Mortimer
Catalog No.:
Notes:
Highslide JS
CANNIZZARITE    Aggregate Industries Quarry, Raymond, NH
2 mm field of view
Species:           CANNIZZARITE 
Locality:          Aggregate Industries Quarry, Raymond, NH
Specimen Size: 2 mm field of view
Field Collected (owner): Bob Wilken
Catalog No.:
Notes:
Highslide JS
CANNIZZARITE   Aggregate Industries Quarry, Raymond, NH
1 mm field of view


Highslide JS
CANNIZZARITE   Aggregate Industries Quarry, Raymond, NH
1 mm field of view
Species:           CANNIZZARITE 
Locality:          Aggregate Industries Quarry, Raymond, NH
Specimen Size: 1 mm field of view. Two photos, different lighting & orientation.
Field Collected (owner): Tom Mortimer
Catalog No.:
Notes:
Highslide JS
CANNIZZARITE   A Pb-Bi mineral with Donnayite-(Y)?   Aggregate Industries Quarry, Raymond, NH
0.7 mm wire assemblage
Species:           CANNIZZARITE   A Pb-Bi mineral with Donnayite-(Y)?  
Locality:          Aggregate Industries Quarry, Raymond, NH
Specimen Size: 0.7 mm wire assemblage
Field Collected (owner): Bob Wilken
Catalog No.:
Notes: [BW] I looked at the wires a long time before I saw the discs!
Highslide JS
CANNIZZARITE    Aggregate Industries Quarry, Raymond, NH
The long lath as best as I can measure is 1.5 mm long
Species:           CANNIZZARITE 
Locality:          Aggregate Industries Quarry, Raymond, NH
Specimen Size: The long lath as best as I can measure is 1.5 mm long
Field Collected (owner): Bob Wilken
Catalog No.:
Notes: [BW] Depending upon how the lighting hits the blades they can exhibit a blue appearance. Perhaps just optics or a superficial oxidation?
Highslide JS
CANNIZZARITE    Aggregate Industries Quarry, Raymond, NH
Metallic blue, curved "ribbon." (about 2.5 - 3 mm long).
Species:           CANNIZZARITE  
Locality:          Aggregate Industries Quarry, Raymond, NH
Specimen Size: Metallic blue, curved "ribbon." (about 2.5 - 3 mm long).
Field Collected (owner): Peter Cristofono
Catalog No.:
Notes:
Highslide JS
CANNIZZARITE    Aggregate Industries Quarry, Raymond, NH
Metallic blue "ribbon." TBD FOV.


Highslide JS
CANNIZZARITE    Aggregate Industries Quarry, Raymond, NH
Metallic blue "ribbon." TBD FOV.
Species:           CANNIZZARITE  
Locality:          Aggregate Industries Quarry, Raymond, NH
Specimen Size: Metallic blue "ribbon." TBD FOV.
Field Collected (owner): Peter Cristofono
Catalog No.:
Notes:
Highslide JS
CANNIZZARITE    Aggregate Industries Quarry, Raymond, NH
SEM photo. Tony Mariano FOV indicated by scale


Highslide JS
CANNIZZARITE    Aggregate Industries Quarry, Raymond, NH
Metallic blue "ribbon." Tony Mariano SEM photo. FOV indicated by scale
Species:           CANNIZZARITE  
Locality:          Aggregate Industries Quarry, Raymond, NH
Specimen Size: Tony Mariano SEM photo. FOV indicated by scale
Field Collected (owner): Peter Cristofono
Catalog No.:
Notes:
Highslide JS
CHALCANTHITE    Palermo Mine, N. Groton, NH
4.3 cm specimen


Highslide JS
CHALCANTHITE    Palermo Mine, N. Groton, NH
Azure blue crystal group, about 1 mm across


Highslide JS
CHALCANTHITE    Palermo Mine, N. Groton, NH
3.5 mm field of view - blue-green micro-crystaline crust.


Highslide JS
Blue grain EDS analyzed (spot selected on blue-crystaline area) - on carbon tape   Palermo Mine, N. Groton, NH
Azure blue crystal group, about 0.5 mm across on mica plate


Highslide JS
Blue-gree grain EDS analyzed - on carbon tape    Palermo Mine, N. Groton, NH
blue-green crystal group, about 0.3 mm across
Species:           CHALCANTHITE  
Confidence:     1
Chemistry:      CuSO4 · 5H2O
Locality:          Palermo Mine, N. Groton, NH
Specimen Size: 4.3 cm specimen with close-up view sizes indicated in photos
Owner: Tom Mortimer. A gift from Dana Jewel, 2015.
Field Collected: Dana Jewel
Catalog No.: u1788
Analysis: Carbon tape mounted grain EDS analyses of both the blue and blue-green minerals (4th and 5th photos) suggested a copper sulfate species on a mica substrate, (the source of the Si, Al, and K in the EDS plots). (The pulse counts for these analyses are quite low, but the best data I curently have.) Chalcanthite is likely the most common of the copper sulfates, but there about ten others. Phosphorous not detected, so not pseudomalachite.
Notes: Bob Whitmore's book, The Pegmatite Mines Known as Palermo does not include any copper sulfate species, so this could be a new one for Palermo.
As the red-brown staining is sometimes indicative of the presence of uranium minerals, the specimen was checked with a scintillometer. No radiation was detected. No fluorescence was observed with SW or LW UV.
Highslide JS
COPPER    Milan Zinc Mine, Milan, NH
11 mm specimen on white mineral tac
Species:           COPPER  
Confidence:     2
Chemistry:      Cu
Locality:          Milan Zinc Mine, Milan, NH
Specimen Size: 11 mm specimen on white mineral tac
Field Collected: Bob Whitmore - 2011
Owner: A Bob Whitmore specimen - Likely since sold.
Notes: The cream-colored substrate matrix for the native copper is soft, somewhat waxy. I confess to having some reservations about this specimen, perhaps due to my unfamilarity with other New England native copper specimens. Native copper has been on some early NH mineral species lists. [TM] This is the only New Hampshire native copper specimen I have seen.
Highslide JS
COPPER?    Aggregate Industries Quarry, Raymond, NH
0.5 mm knotted wire
Species:           COPPER? 
Locality:          Aggregate Industries Quarry, Raymond, NH
Specimen Size: 0.5 mm knotted wire
Field Collected (owner): Bob Wilken
Catalog No.:
Notes:
Highslide JS
COPPER?    Aggregate Industries Quarry, Raymond, NH
1.8 mm FOV
Species:           COPPER? 
Locality:          Aggregate Industries Quarry, Raymond, NH
Specimen Size: 1.8 mm FOV
Field Collected (owner): Bob Wilken
Catalog No.:
Notes: Three wires.
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